Alpha One Medical - DRSABCD first aid action plan
- Survey the scene
- Apply your personal protective equipment (PPE)
- Remove or minimise hazards
Hazards include: bio-hazards, chemicals, gases, electricity, traffic, fire smoke & explosions, unstable structures, slippery surfaces, sharp broken objects, aggressive behaviours.
Don't become a casualty yourself rendering first aid - the priority is your safety first, then the bystanders, then the casualty.
Approach the casualty with caution - they may be anxious, irrational or aggressive. Assess their levels of consciousness.
Talk & Touch - speak clearly and loudly, don't shout, "hello, can you hear me?", "what is your name?", "open your eyes", "squeeze my hand". Squeeze shoulders firmly - don't shake the casualty.
SEND FOR HELP:
Verbally call for help or use your phone to call for help. You may decide to send a bystander to get help - ensure the bystander returns and confirms they contacted emergency services.
- Check for foreign material which could be obstructed the airway.
- Open the airway - use chin lift and backward head tilt to open airway.
- If foreign material is present, roll the casualty onto their side and clear, using postural drainage and finger sweep method.
- The airway takes precedence over any other injury, including a possible spinal injury.
- Promptly roll the casualty onto their side to clear the airway, if it is obstructed with foreign materials - blood, vomit, false teeth.
- Look - for the rise and fall of lower chest/upper abdomen.
- Listen - for breath sounds.
- Feel - for movement of chest and escaping air from their mouth.
This should take no longer then 10 seconds.
Abnormal or no breathing:
- if the casualty is unresponsive and not breathing normally after the airway has been cleared and opened, this indicates cardiac arrest and the rescuer should immediately commence chest compression's (CPR),then rescue breathing.
- If unwilling or unable to perform rescue breathing, continue with compression's (CPR).
30 chest compression's - 2 rescue breaths = (CPR)
- Depth - 1/3 of the chest wall or 5 cm in adults.
- Rate - approximately 100 - 120 compression's per minute.
- Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the casualty's chest.
- Place the other hand on top, arms locked and straight, press down on the sternum at least 5 cm (remember arms locked and pivot at the hips).
- Allow complete recoil of the chest after each compression.
- Keep compression's rhythmical at 100 -120 compression's per minute.
- Take a breath.
- Pinch closed the casualty's nostrils.
- Place your mouth over the casualty's and gain a good seal (or use a pocket mask).
- Blow to inflate lungs.
- Turn your head after each breath.
- Listen for air exhaled from the mouth.
- Avoid inhaling re-expired air.
- Change rescuers every two minutes to prevent fatigue.
- Do compression's-only CPR, if unwilling or unable to give rescue breaths.
- Continue CPR until casualty responds or breathing returns (Do not stop CPR to check for breathing)
STOP CPR WHEN:
- Casualty responds or begins to breath normally.
- Exhaustion - you cannot continue.
- Health professional arrives and takes over.
- Health professional directs that CPR should stop.
An AED (automated external defibrillator) delivers electric shock to reverse abnormal heart rhythms. Not all heart rhythms are reversible.
- Use an AED when the casualty is unconscious and not breathing normally.
- If two rescuers: continue CPR while one rescuer organises the AED Pads.
- Switch on the AED and follow the voice prompts.
- Place the pads on bare, dry chest (wipe dry if sweaty or wet), remove clothing, jewellery, medication patches. Place 8 cm from any implanted devices (pace-maker), avoid piercings. Remove excess chest hair.
- NO CONTACT: do not touch the casualty during analysis or shock.
- NO CONDUCTION: do not have the casualty in contact with conductive materials like metal floors or puddles of water.
- NO EXPLOSION: do not use in explosive environment.